In this section Financial Data showing consolidated records for the legal entity as well as subsidiary companies. A substantial number of firms filed their 10-K as a Form 10-K405 during the late 1990s and early 2000s (decade). A 10-K405 is a 10-K where the Regulation S-K Item 405 box on the cover page is checked. Due to confusion in its application, the 10-K405 was eliminated in 2002.


  1. In some states, the Articles of Organization are known as the Certificate of Formation or Certificate of Organization.
  2. Ask a question about your financial situation providing as much detail as possible.
  3. Investors looking for expert guidance on this front might consider enlisting the help of a trusted financial advisor.
  4. A corporation is a complex legal business entity that is run by a board of directors and owned by shareholders.
  5. If your business relies on outside investors, take a look at our How to Start a Corporation guide.

You can typically complete file formation documents yourself online, by mail, by fax, or in person. However, we recommend hiring an LLC formation service to file for you. A limited liability company (LLC) is one of the most popular business structures, offering limited liability protection and protection from pass-through taxation.

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This section lays out the significant properties, physical assets, of the company. This only includes physical types of property, not intellectual or intangible property. According to the latest report, there is an 80 percent likelihood that the annual average global temperature will temporarily exceed 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels for at least one of the next five years. The information on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Contact a health care provider if you have questions about your health.

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Despite their overlaps, however, they do have significant differences. It allows them to study the specific ways a company operates and makes its money. It also explains where the company operates and any risks the company faces, including any current and pending lawsuits. All 10-Ks are publicly available documents that investors can find at different locations. Publicly traded companies are required to publish their 10-Ks, which they typically do on their corporate or investor relations websites.

Business model and risks

The Form 10-K is an annual business disclosure report all publicly traded companies are legally required to file with the Securities and Exchange Commission and make available to investors. This form is a comprehensive report of a company’s performance and includes relevant information about its financial position. The company is only required to file it three times a year as the 10-K is filed in the fourth quarter.

Legal proceedings

This may be the most important part of the 10-K and is the part a prospective investor should read most carefully. These include market risks, liabilities and debts, and any current or potential legal issues. If the company has active or pending lawsuits it must disclose them here, as well as any unresolved regulatory issues. The Form 10-K Filing is the comprehensive, annual report required to be filed with the SEC for all publicly-traded companies based in the U.S. However, companies often have greater control over not only the information presented but how to present that information. It may be confined to publishing financial statements in accordance with GAAP; however, it can also present metrics or visualizations.

What is your risk tolerance?

This information allows investors to make an informed decision about whether or not to trust this company with their money. Traders in particular rely on disclosures like this when deciding whether to buy a company’s stock or bonds, the two most common securities sold on the open market by publicly traded firms. Investors looking for expert guidance on this front might consider enlisting the help of a trusted financial advisor. Publicly traded companies are required by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to file an annual report following the outline provided on Form 10-K.

It requires items such as the company’s bylaws, information about material contracts, and a list of the company’s subsidiaries. The annual report is sent to shareholders each year ahead of the annual shareholder meeting and voting for the board of directors. The deadline for filing a 10-K is between 60 and 90 days after the end of the company’s fiscal year, depending on the size of the company.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), that gives a comprehensive summary of a company’s financial performance. The 10-K includes information such as company history, organizational structure, executive compensation, equity, subsidiaries, and audited financial statements, among other information. These financial statements typically consist of the balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, and statement of shareholders’ equity. The consistency of financial information in both the annual report and the 10-K ensures that users can cross-reference data and gain a clear understanding of the company’s financial status. A 10-K is a disclosure form required by the SEC for all publicly traded companies.

For example, new laws or regulations passed by the federal government that may impact the company’s ability to operate the business would be included. However, this document has its downsides, the most obvious of which is that it is backward-looking. Also, the 10-K can be overwhelming as the document often exceeds 100 pages in length.

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At the bottom of the form, the company’s independent auditor will include a statement. This is all information that can be both relevant and important to a serious investor. Other financial statements provided by the company include the Statement of Comprehensive Income and the Statement of Stockholders’ Equity.

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